It is the fourth most disabling disease worldwide and is currently incurable. Inflammation and extracellular matrix(ECM) degradation are considered to be substantial reasons for accelerating the progression of OA. β-Hydroxyisoamylshikonin (β-HIVS) is a natural naphthoquinone compound with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.However, the effect of β-HIVS on OA is still unclear. In this study, we found that β-HIVS can down-regulate the expression of NO, PEG2, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2,and iNOS, suggesting its anti-inflammatory effects in chondrocytes; we also found that β-HIVS may down-regulate the expression of ADAMTS5 and MMP13 and up-regulate the expression of aggrecan and collagen II to inhibit the degradation of ECM. Mechanistically, β-HIVS inhibited the NFκB pathway by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 axis, thereby exerting its anti-inflammatory and inhibitory effects on ECM degradation. In vivo experiments also proved the therapeutic effects of β-HIVS on OA in mice, and Nrf2 is the target of β-HIVS.These findings indicate that β-HIVS may become a new drug for the treatment ofOA.