The genus Pareuchiloglanis, distributed in the Salween, Mekong, Red, Pearl, and Yangtze River basins in China, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam consists of 20 valid species and five uncertain species. Herein, we provided a taxonomic revision to Pareuchiloglanis occurring in the Yangtze River. According to the results of a morphological comparison, the type locality of Pareuchiloglanis sinensis was updated to the Nanpan-jiang (the upper Pearl River) basin; five species were identified in Pareuchiloglanis from the Yangtze River basin. Specimens formerly identified as P. sinensis from this basin were described as a new species, P. chui sp. Moreover, P. tianquanensis was synonymized with P. sichuanensis. We provided a key to these two species and three others (P. anteanalis, P. hupingshanensis and P. robusta) from the Yangtze River basin, including information about their geographical distribution. These findings provide insight for future studies on the evolution, distribution, and taxonomy of this genus.